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procedural abstraction
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PROCEDURAL ABSTRACTION
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When applied to a function definition, the principle of procedural abstraction means that your function should be written so that it can be used like a black box This means that the programmer who uses the function should not need to look at the body of the function definition to see how the function works The function declaration and the accompanying comment should be all the programmer needs to know in order to use the function To ensure that your function definitions have this important property, you should strictly adhere to the following rules:
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BLACK-BOX FUNCTION DEFINITION
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The function declaration comment should tell the programmer any and all conditions that are required of the arguments to the function and should describe the result of a function invocation All variables used in the function body should be declared in the function body (The formal parameters do not need to be declared, because they are listed in the function heading)
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term procedural abstraction The term abstraction is intended to convey the idea that when you use a function as a black box, you are abstracting away the details of the code contained in the function body You can call this technique the black box principle or the principle of procedural abstraction or information hiding The three terms mean the same thing Whatever you call this principle, the important point is that you should use it when designing and writing your function de nitions
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s GLOBAL CONSTANTS AND GLOBAL VARIABLES
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As we noted in 1, you can and should name constant values using the const modi er For example, in Display 35 we used the const modi er to give a name to the rate of sales tax with the following declaration:
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const double TAXRATE = 005; //5% sales tax
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If this declaration is inside the de nition of a function, as in Display 35, then the name TAXRATE is local to the function de nition, which means that outside the de nition of the function that contains the declaration, you can use the name TAXRATE for another named constant, or variable, or anything else On the other hand, if this declaration were to appear at the beginning of your program, outside the body of all the functions (and outside the body of the main part of your program), then the named constant is said to be a global named constant and the named constant can be used in any function de nition that follows the constant declaration Display 39 shows a program with an example of a global named constant The program asks for a radius and then computes both the area of a circle and the volume of a sphere with that radius, using the following formulas:
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area = x (radius)2 volume = (4/3) x x (radius)3
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global named constant
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Both formulas include the constant , which is approximately equal to 314159 The symbol is the Greek letter called pi The program thus uses the following global named constant:
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const double PI = 314159;
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which appears outside the de nition of any function (including outside the de nition of main) The compiler allows you wide latitude in where you place the declarations for your global named constants To aid readability, however, you should place all your include directives together, all your global named constant declarations together in another group, and all your function declarations (function prototypes) together We will follow standard practice and place all our global named constant declarations after our include and using directives and before our function declarations
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Display 39
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A Global Named Constant (part 1 of 2)
//Computes the area of a circle and the volume of a sphere //Uses the same radius for both calculations #include <iostream> #include <cmath> using namespace std; const double PI = 314159; double area(double radius); //Returns the area of a circle with the specified radius double volume(double radius); //Returns the volume of a sphere with the specified radius int main( ) { double radiusOfBoth, areaOfCircle, volumeOfSphere; cout << "Enter a radius to use for both a circle\n" << "and a sphere (in inches): "; cin >> radiusOfBoth; areaOfCircle = area(radiusOfBoth); volumeOfSphere = volume(radiusOfBoth); cout << << << << << "Radius = " << radiusOfBoth << " inches\n" "Area of circle = " << areaOfCircle " square inches\n" "Volume of sphere = " << volumeOfSphere " cubic inches\n";
return 0; } double area(double radius) { return (PI * pow(radius, 2)); } double volume(double radius) { return ((40/30) * PI * pow(radius, 3)); }