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RANGE [FIRST,
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The movement from some iterator first, often containerbegin( ), up to but not including some location last, often containerend( ), is so common it has come to have a special name, range [first, last) For example, the following code outputs all elements in the range [cbegin( ), cend( )), where c is some container object, such as a vector:
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for (iterator p = cbegin( ); p != cend( ); p++) cout << *p << endl;
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Notice that there are three search functions in Display 1917: find, search, and binary_search The function search searches for a subsequence, while the find and binary_search functions search for a single value How do you decide whether to use find or binary_search when searching for a single element One function returns an iterator whereas the other returns just a Boolean value, but that is not the biggest difference The binary_search function requires that the range being searched be sorted (into ascending order using <) and run in time O(log N), whereas the find function does not require that the range be sorted, but only guarantees linear time If you have or can have the elements in sorted order, you can search for them much more quickly by using binary_search Note that with the binary_search function you are guaranteed that the implementation will use the binary search algorithm, which was discussed in 13 The importance of using the binary search algorithm is that it guarantees a very fast running time, O(log N) If you have not read 13 and have not otherwise heard of a binary search, just think of it as a very ef cient search algorithm that requires that the elements be sorted Those are the only two points about binary searches that are relevant to the material in this chapter
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19 Replace all occurrences of the identifier vector with the identifier list in Display 1916 Compile and run the program 20 Suppose v is an object of the class vector<int> Use the search generic function (Display 1917) to write some code to determine whether or not v contains the number 42 immediately followed by 43 You need not give a complete program, but do give all necessary include and using directives (Hint: It may help to use a second vector)
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Display 1918 contains descriptions of some of the generic functions in the STL that change the contents of a container in some way Remember that adding or removing an element to or from a container can affect any of the other iterators There is no guarantee that the iterators will be located at the same element after an addition or deletion unless the container template class makes such a guarantee Of the template classes we have seen, list and slist guarantee that their iterators will not be moved by additions or deletions, except of course if the iterator is located at an element that is removed The template classes vector and deque make no such guarantee Some of the function templates in Display 1918 guarantee the values of some speci c iterators; you can, of course, count on those guarantees no matter what the container is
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21 Can you use the random_shuffle template function with a list container 22 Can you use the copy template function with vector containers, even though copy requires forward iterators and vector has random-access iterators
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Display 1919 shows a sample of the generic set operation functions de ned in the STL Note that generic algorithms assume that the containers store their elements in sorted order The containers set, map, multiset, and multimap do store their elements in sorted order; therefore, all the functions in Display 1919 apply to these four template class containers Other containers, such as vector, do not store their elements in sorted order; these functions should not be used with such containers The reason for requiring that the elements be sorted is so that the algorithms can be more ef cient
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