Self-Test Exercises in Software

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Self-Test Exercises
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10 What happens when an exception is never caught 11 Can you nest a try block inside another try block
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Summary
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Exception handling allows you to design and code the normal case for your program separately from the code that handles exceptional situations An exception can be thrown in a try block Alternatively, an exception can be thrown in a function de nition that does not include a try block (or does not include a catch block to catch that type of exception) In this case, an invocation of the function can be placed in a try block An exception is caught in a catch block A try block may be followed by more than one catch block In this case, always list the catch block for a more speci c exception class before the catch block for a more general exception class The best use of exceptions is to throw an exception in a function (but not catch it in the function) whenever the way the exception is handled will vary from one invocation of
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Exception Handling
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the function to another There is seldom any other situation that can pro tably bene t from throwing an exception If an exception is thrown in a function but not caught in that function, then the exception type should be listed in an exception speci cation for that function If an exception is thrown but never caught, then the default behavior is to end your program Do not overuse exceptions
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ANSWERS
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1 Try block entered
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Exception thrown with waitTime equal to 46 After catch block
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2 Try block entered
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3 throw waitTime; Note that the following is an if statement, not a throw statement, even though it contains a throw statement:
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if (waitTime > 30) throw waitTime;
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4 When a throw statement is executed, that is the end of the enclosing try block No other statements in the try block are executed, and control passes to the following catch block or blocks When we say control passes to the following catch block, we mean that the value thrown is plugged in for the catch-block parameter (if any) and the code in the catch block is executed 5 try
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{ cout << "Try block entered"; if (waitTime > 30) throw waitTime); cout << "Leaving try block"; }
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6 catch(int thrownValue)
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{ cout << "Exception thrown with\n << waitTime equal to" << thrownValue << endl; }
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Programming Projects
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7 thrownValue is the catch-block parameter 8 Trying
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Starting sampleFunction Catching End of program
9 Trying
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10 If an exception is not caught anywhere, then your program ends Technically speaking, if an exception is thrown but not caught, then the function terminate( ) is called The default meaning for terminate( ) is to end your program 11 Yes, you can have a try block and corresponding catch blocks inside another larger try block However, it would probably be better to place the inner try and catch blocks in a function definition and place an invocation of the function in the larger try block
PROGRAMMING PROJECTS
1 Obtain the source code for the PFArray class from 10 Modify the definition of the overloaded operator, [], so it throws an OutOfRange exception if an index that is out of range is used or if an attempt is made to add an element beyond the capacity of the implementation OutOfRange is an exception class that you define The exception class should have a private int member and a private string member, and a public constructor that has int and string arguments The offending index value along with a message should be stored in the exception object You choose the message to describe the situation Write a suitable test program to test the modified class PFArray 2 (Based on a problem in Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, 3rd edition) Write a program consisting of functions calling one another to a calling depth of 10 Give each function an argument that specifies the level at which it is to throw an exception The main function prompts for and receives input that specifies the calling depth (level) at which an exception will be thrown The main function then calls the first function The main function catches the exception and displays the level at which the exception was thrown Don t forget the case where the depth is 0, where main must both throw and catch the exception Hints: You could use 10 different functions or 10 copies of the same function that call one another, but don t Rather, for compact code, use a main function that calls another function that calls itself recursively Suppose you do this; is the restriction on the calling depth necessary This can be done without giving the function any additional arguments, but if you cannot do it that way, try adding an additional argument to the function