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If the above statement were executed in a program, it would cause the following to appear on the screen:
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325 degrees Fahrenheit is equivalent to 03 degrees Celsius
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Notice that the function call ends with a semicolon, which tells the compiler that the function call is an executable statement When a void function is called, the arguments are substituted for the formal parameters, and the statements in the function body are executed For example, a call to the void function showResults, which we gave earlier in this section, will cause some output to be written to the screen One way to think of a call to a void function is to imagine that the body of the function de nition is copied into the program in place of the function call When the function is called, the arguments are substituted for the formal parameters, and then it is just as if the body of the function were lines in the program ( 4 describes the process of substituting arguments for formal parameters in detail Until then, we will use only simple examples that should be clear enough without a formal description of the substitution process) It is perfectly legal, and sometimes useful, to have a function with no arguments In that case there simply are no formal parameters listed in the function declaration and no arguments are used when the function is called For example, the void function initializeScreen, de ned below, simply sends a newline command to the screen:
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void initializeScreen( ) { cout << endl; }
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If your program includes the following call to this function as its rst executable statement, then the output from the previously run program will be separated from the output for your program:
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initializeScreen( );
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Be sure to notice that even when there are no parameters to a function, you still must include the parentheses in the function declaration and in a call to the function Placement of the function declaration (function prototype) and the function de nition is the same for void functions as what we described for functions that return a value
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Both void functions and functions that return a value can have return statements In the case of a function that returns a value, the return statement speci es the value returned In the case of a void function, the return statement does not include any expression for a value returned A return statement in a void function simply ends the function call Every function that returns a value must end by executing a return statement However, a void function need not contain a return statement If it does not contain a return statement, it will end after executing the code in the function body It is as if there were an implicit return statement just before the nal closing brace, }, at the end of the function body
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FUNCTION DECLARATION (FUNCTION PROTOTYPE)
A function declaration (function prototype) tells you all you need to know to write a call to the function A function declaration (or the full function definition) must appear in your code prior to a call to the function Function declarations are normally placed before the main part of your program
SYNTAX
Type_Returned_Or_void FunctionName(Parameter_List);
Do not forget this semicolon
where the Parameter_List is a comma-separated list of parameters:
Type_1 Formal_Parameter_1, Type_2 Formal_Parameter_2, , Type_Last Formal_Parameter_Last
EXAMPLES
double totalWeight(int number, double weightOfOne); //Returns the total weight of number items that //each weigh weightOfOne void showResults(double fDegrees, double cDegrees); //Displays a message saying fDegrees Fahrenheit //is equivalent to cDegrees Celsius
The fact that there is an implicit return statement before the nal closing brace in a function body does not mean that you never need a return statement in a void function For example, the function de nition in Display 37 might be used as part of a restaurant-management program That function outputs instructions for dividing a given amount of ice cream among the people at a table If there are no people at the table (that is, if number equals 0), then the return statement within the if statement terminates the function call and avoids a division by zero If number is not 0, then the function call ends when the last cout statement is executed at the end of the function body