Templates in Software

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Templates
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restrictions on the type parameter
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Almost all template class de nitions have some restrictions on what types can reasonable be substituted for the type parameter (or parameters) Even a straightforward template class like Pair does not work well with absolutely all types T The type Pair<T> will not be well behaved unless the assignment operator and copy constructor are well behaved for the type T, since the assignment operator is used in member function de nitions and since there are member functions with call-by-value parameters of type T If T involves pointers and dynamic variables, then T should also have a suitable destructor However, these are requirements you might expect a well-behaved class type T to have So, these requirements are minimal With other template classes the requirements on the types that can be substituted for a type parameter may be more restrictive
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CLASS TEMPLATE SYNTAX
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A class template definition and the definitions of its member functions are prefaced with the following:
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template<class Type_Parameter>
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The class and member function definitions are then the same as for any ordinary class, except that the Type_Parameter can be used in place of a type For example, the following is the beginning of a class template definition:
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template<class T> class Pair { public: Pair( ); Pair(T firstValue, T secondValue);
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Member functions and overloaded operators are then defined as function templates For example, the definition of the two-argument constructor for the above sample class template would begin as follows:
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template<class T> Pair<T>::Pair(T firstValue, T secondValue) {
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You can specialize a class template by giving a type argument to the class name, as in the following example:
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Pair<int>
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The specialized class name, like Pair<int>, can then be used just like any class name It can be used to declare objects or to specify the type of a formal parameter
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Class Templates
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TYPE DEFINITIONS
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You can define a new class type name that has the same meaning as a specialized class template name, such as Pair<int> The syntax for such a defined class type name is as follows:
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typedef Class_Name<Type_Argument> New_Type_Name;
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For example:
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typedef Pair<int> PairOfInt;
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The type name PairOfInt can then be used to declare objects of type Pair<int>, as in the following example:
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PairOfInt pair1, pair2;
The type name PairOfInt can also be used to specify the type of a formal parameter or used anyplace else a type name is allowed
Self-Test Exercises
9 Give the definition for the default (zero-argument) constructor for the class template Pair in Display 164 10 Give the complete definition for the following function, which was discussed in the previous subsection:
int addUp(const Pair<int>& thePair); //Returns the sum of the two integers in thePair
11 Give the complete definition for the following template function, which was discussed in the previous subsection:
template<class T> T addUp(const Pair<T>& thePair); //Precondition: The operator + is defined for values of type T //Returns the sum of the two values in thePair
Example
AN ARRAY TEMPLATE CLASS
In 10 we defined a class for a partially filled array of doubles (Displays 1010 and 1011) In this example, we convert that definition to a template class for a partially filled array of values of any type The template class PFArray has a type parameter T for the base type of the array
Templates
The conversion is routine We just replace double (when it occurs as the base type of the array) with the type parameter T and convert both the class definition and the member function definitions to template form The template class definition is given in Display 165 The member function template definitions are given in Display 166 namespace separate compilation Note that we have placed the template definitions in a namespace Namespaces are used with templates in the same way as they are used with simple, nontemplate definitions A sample application program is given in Display 167 Note that we have separated the class template interface, implementation, and application program into three files Unfortunately, these files cannot be used for the traditional method of separate compilation Most compilers do not yet accommodate such separate compilation So, we do the best we can by #include-ing the interface and implementation files in the application file To the compiler, that makes it look like everything is in one file
Display 165 Interface for the PFArray Template Class (part 1 of 2)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 //This is the header file pfarrayh This is the interface for the class //PFArray Objects of this type are partially filled arrays with base type T #ifndef PFARRAY_H #define PFARRAY_H namespace PFArraySavitch { template<class T> class PFArray { public: PFArray( ); //Initializes with a capacity of 50 PFArray(int capacityValue); PFArray(const PFArray<T>& pfaObject); void addElement(T element); //Precondition: The array is not full //Postcondition: The element has been added bool full( ) const; //Returns true if the array is full; false, otherwise int getCapacity( ) const; int getNumberUsed( ) const; void emptyArray( ); //Resets the number used to zero, effectively emptying the array