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When we defined the function templates in Display 163, we started with a function that sorts an array of elements of type int We then created a template by replacing the base type of the array with the type parameter T This is a good general strategy for writing templates If you want to write a function template, first write a version that is not a template at all but is just an ordinary function Then completely debug the ordinary function, and finally convert the ordinary function to a template by replacing some type names with a type parameter There are two advantages to this method First, when you are defining the ordinary function, you are dealing with a much more concrete case, which makes the problem easier to visualize Second, you have fewer details to check at each stage; when worrying about the algorithm itself, you need not concern yourself with template syntax rules
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You can use a template function with any type for which the code in the function definition makes sense However, all the code in the template function must makes sense and must behave in an appropriate way For example, you cannot use the swapValues template (Display 161) with the type parameter replaced by a type for which the assignment operator does not work at all, or does not work correctly
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As a more concrete example, suppose that your program defines the template function swapValues as in Display 161 You cannot add the following to your program
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int a[10], b[10];
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<some code to fill arrays>
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swapValues(a, b);
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This code will not work, because assignment does not work with array types:
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5 Display 56 shows a function called search, which searches an array for a specified integer Give a function template version of search that can be used to search an array of elements of any type Give both the function declaration and the function definition for the template (Hint: It is almost identical to the function given in Display 56) 6 Compare and contrast overloading of a function name with the definition of a function template for the function name 7 (This exercise is only for those who have already read at least 6 on structures and classes and preferably also read 8 on overloading operators) Can you use the sort template function (Display 163) to sort an array with base type DayOfYear defined in Display 64 8 (This exercise is only for those who have already read 10 on pointers and dynamic arrays) Although the assignment operator does not work with ordinary array variables, it does work with pointer variables that are used to name dynamic arrays Suppose that your program de nes the template function swapValues as in Display 161 and contains the following code What is the output produced by this code
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typedef int* ArrayPointer; ArrayPointer a, b, c; a = new int[3]; b = new int[3]; int i; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) { a[i] = i; b[i] = i*100; } c = a; cout << "a contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << a[i] << " "; cout << endl;
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cout << "b contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << b[i] << " "; cout << endl; cout << "c contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << c[i] << " "; cout << endl; swapValues(a, b); b[0] = 42; cout << "After swapping a and b,\n" << "and changing b:\n"; cout << "a contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << a[i] << " "; cout << endl; cout << "b contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << b[i] << " "; cout << endl; cout << "c contains: "; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) cout << c[i] << " "; cout << endl;
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