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PFArrayDBak& PFArrayDBak::operator =(const PFArrayDBak& rightSide) { PFArrayD::operator =(rightSide);
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Display 1413 Alternate Implementation of PFArrayDBak (part 2 of 2)
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39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 if (getCapacity( ) != rightSidegetCapacity( )) { delete [] b; b = new double[rightSidegetCapacity( )]; } usedB = rightSideusedB; for (int i = 0; i < usedB; i++) b[i] = rightSideb[i]; return *this; }
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PFArrayDBak::~PFArrayDBak( ) { delete [] b; }
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Early in this chapter we defined a derived class called HourlyEmployee using the class Employee as the base class In such a case an object of the derived class HourlyEmployee is also of type Employee Stated more simply, an HourlyEmployee is an Employee This is an example of the is a relationship between classes It is one way to make a more complex class from a simpler class Another way to make a more complex class from a simpler class is known as the has a relationship For example, if you have a class Date that records a date, then you might add a date of employment to the Employee class by adding a member variable of type Date to the Employee class In this case we say an Employee has a Date As another example, if we have an appopriately named class to simulate a jet engine and we are defining a class to simulate a passenger airplane, then we can give the PassengerAirPlane class one or more member variables of type JetEngine In this case we say that a PassengerAirPlane has a JetEngine In most situations you can make your code work with either an is a relationship or a has a relationship It seems silly (and it is silly) to make the PassengerAirPlane class a derived class of the JetEngine class, but it can be done and can be made to work (perhaps with difficulty) Fortunately, the best programming technique is to simply follow what sounds most natural in English It makes more sense to say A passenger airplane has a jet engine than it does to say A passenger airplane is a jet engine So, it makes better programming sense to have JetEngine as a member variable of a PassengerAirPlane class It makes little sense to make the PassengerAirPlane class a derived class of the JetEngine class
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10 Suppose you define a function with a parameter of type PFArrayD Can you plug in an object of the class PFArrayDBak as an argument for this function 11 Would the following be legal for the definition of a member function to add to the class Employee (Display 141) (Remember, the question is whether it is legal, not whether it is sensible)
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void Employee::doStuff( ) { Employee object("Joe", "123-45-6789"); cout << "Hello " << objectname << endl; }
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So far, all our de nitions of derived classes included the keyword public in the class heading, as in the following:
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class SalariedEmployee : public Employee {
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This may lead you to suspect that the word public can be replaced with either protected or private to obtain a different kind of inheritance In this case, your suspicion would be correct However, protected and private inheritance are seldom used We include a brief description of them for the sake of completeness The syntax for protected and private inheritance is illustrated by the following:
class SalariedEmployee : protected Employee {
If you use the keyword protected for inheritance, then members that are public in the base class are protected in the derived class when they are inherited If you use the keyword private for inheritance, then all members of the base class (public, protected, and private) are inaccessible in the derived class; in other words, all members are inherited as if they were marked private in the base class Moreover, with protected and private inheritance, an object of the derived class cannot be used as an argument that has the type of the base class If Derived is derived from Base using protected or private (instead of public), then an object of type Derived is not an object of type Base; the is a relationship does not hold with protected and private inheritance The idea is that with protected and private inheritance the base class is simply a tool to use in de ning the derived class Although protected and private inheritance can be made to work for some purposes, they are, as you might suspect, seldom used, and any use they do have can be achieved in other ways The details about protected and private inheritance are summarized in Display 1414