Inheritance in Software

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Inheritance
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PROTECTED MEMBERS
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If you use the qualifier protected, rather than private or public, before a member variable of a class, then for any class or function other than a derived class the effect is the same as if the member variable were labeled private However, in the definition of a member function of a derived class the variable can be accessed by name Similarly, if you use the qualifier protected before a member function of a class, then for any class or function other than a derived class the effect is the same as if the member variable were labeled private However, in the definition of a member function of a derived class the protected function can be used Protected members are inherited in the derived class as if they were marked protected in the derived class In other words, if a member is marked as protected in a base class, then it can be accessed by name in the definitions of all descendant classes, not just in those classes directly derived from the base class
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Self-Test Exercises
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1 Is the following program legal (assuming appropriate #include and using directives are added)
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void showEmployeeData(const Employee object); int main( ) { HourlyEmployee joe("Mighty Joe", "123-45-6789", 2050, 40); SalariedEmployee boss("Mr Big Shot", "987-65-4321", 1050050); showEmployeeData(joe); showEmployeeData(boss); return 0; } void showEmployeeData(const Employee object) { cout << "Name: " << objectgetName( ) << endl; cout << "Social Security Number: " << objectgetSsn( ) << endl; }
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2 Give a definition for a class SmartBut that is a derived class of the base class Smart given below Do not bother with #include directives or namespace details
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class Smart {
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Inheritance Basics
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public: Smart( ); void printAnswer( ) const; protected: int a; int b; };
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This class should have an additional data eld, crazy, of type bool; one additional member function that takes no arguments and returns a value of type bool; and suitable constructors The new function is named isCrazy You do not need to give any implementations, just the class de nition 3 Is the following a legal definition of the member function isCrazy in the derived class SmartBut discussed in Self-Test Exercise 2 Explain your answer (Remember, the question asks if it is legal, not if it is a sensible definition)
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bool SmartBut::isCrazy( ) const { if (a > b) return crazy; else return true; }
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s REDEFINITION OF MEMBER FUNCTIONS
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In the de nition of the derived class HourlyEmployee (Display 143), we gave the declaration for the new member functions setRate, getRate, setHours, and getHours We also gave the function declaration for only one of the member functions inherited from the class Employee The inherited member functions whose function declarations were not given (such as setName and setSsn) are inherited unchanged They have the same de nition in the class HourlyEmployee as they do in the base class Employee When you de ne a derived class like HourlyEmployee, you only list the function declarations for the inherited member functions whose de nitions you want to change to have different de nitions in the derived class If you look at the implementation of the class HourlyEmployee (Display 145), you will see that we have rede ned the inherited member function printCheck The class SalariedEmployee also gives a new de nition to the member function printCheck, as shown in Display 146 Moreover, the two classes give different de nitions from each other The function printCheck is rede ned in the derived classes Display 147 gives a demonstration program that illustrates the use of the derived classes HourlyEmployee and SalariedEmployee
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Inheritance
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REDEFINING
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AN INHERITED FUNCTION
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A derived class inherits all the member functions (and member variables) that belong to the base class However, if a derived class requires a different implementation for an inherited member function, the function may be redefined in the derived class When a member function is redefined, you must list its declaration in the definition of the derived class, even though the declaration is the same as in the base class If you do not wish to redefine a member function that is inherited from the base class, do not list it in the definition of the derived class
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Display 147 Using Derived Classes (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 #include <iostream> #include "hourlyemployeeh" #include "salariedemployeeh" using std::cout; using std::endl; using SavitchEmployees::HourlyEmployee; using SavitchEmployees::SalariedEmployee; int main( ) { HourlyEmployee joe; joesetName("Mighty Joe"); joesetSsn("123-45-6789"); joesetRate(2050); joesetHours(40); cout << "Check for " << joegetName( ) << " for " << joegetHours( ) << " hours\n"; joeprintCheck( ); cout << endl; SalariedEmployee boss("Mr Big Shot", "987-65-4321", 1050050); cout << "Check for " << bossgetName( ) << endl; bossprintCheck( ); return 0; }
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The functions setName, setSsn, setRate, setHours, and getName are inherited unchanged from the class Employee The function printCheck is redefined The function getHours was added to the derived class HourlyEmployee