ANOTHER newLine FUNCTION in Software

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Example
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ANOTHER newLine FUNCTION
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As an example of how you can make a stream function more versatile, consider the function newLine that we defined in Display 92 That function works only for input from the keyboard, which is input from the predefined stream cin The function newLine in Display 92 has no arguments Below we have rewritten the function newLine so that it has a formal parameter of type istream for the input stream:
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//Uses <iostream>: void newLine(istream& inStream) { char symbol; do {
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Streams and File I/O
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inStreamget(symbol); } while (symbol != \n ); }
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Now, suppose your program contains this new version of the function newLine If your program is taking input from an input stream called fin (which is connected to an input file), the following will discard all the input left on the line currently being read from the input file:
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newLine(fin);
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If your program is also reading some input from the keyboard, the following will discard the remainder of the input line that was typed in at the keyboard:
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newLine(cin);
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using both versions of newLine
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If your program has only the above rewritten version of newLine, which takes a stream argument such as fin or cin, you must always give the stream name, even if the stream name is cin But thanks to overloading, you can have both versions of the function newLine in the same program: the version with no arguments that is given in Display 92 and the version with one argument of type istream that we just defined In a program with both definitions of newLine, the following two calls are equivalent:
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newLine(cin);
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newLine( );
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You do not really need two versions of the function newLine The version with one argument of type istream can serve all your needs However, many programmers find it convenient to have a version with no arguments for keyboard input, since keyboard input is used so frequently An alternative to having two overloaded versions of the newLine function is to use a default argument (as discussed in 4) In the following code, we have rewritten the newLine function a third time:
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//Uses <iostream>: void newLine(istream& inStream = cin) { char symbol; do { inStreamget(symbol); } while (symbol != '\n'); }
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If we call this function as
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newLine( );
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Stream Hierarchies: A Preview of Inheritance
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the formal parameter takes the default argument cin If we call this as
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newLine(fin);
the formal parameter takes the argument fin An alternative to using this newLine function is to use the function ignore, which we discussed in 9 The function ignore is a member of every input-file stream as well as a member of cin
ignore
Self-Test Exercises
13 What is the type of the stream cin What is the type of the stream cout 14 Define a function called copyChar that takes one argument that is an input stream When called, copyChar will read one character of input from the input stream given as its argument and will write that character to the screen You should be able to call your function using either cin or an input-file stream as the argument to your function copyChar (If the argument is an input-file stream, then the stream is connected to a file before the function is called, so copyChar will not open or close any files) For example, the first of the following two calls to copyChar will copy a character from the file stufftxt to the screen, and the second will copy a character from the keyboard to the screen:
ifstream fin; finopen("stufftxt"); copyChar(fin); copyChar(cin);
15 Define a function called copyLine that takes one argument that is an input stream When called, copyLine reads one line of input from the input stream given as its argument and writes that line to the screen You should be able to call your function using either cin or an input-file stream as the argument to your function copyLine (If the argument is an input-file stream, then the stream is connected to a file before the function is called, so copyLine will not open or close any files) For example, the first of the following two calls to copyLine will copy a line from the file stufftxt to the screen, and the second will copy a line from the keyboard to the screen:
ifstream fin; finopen("stufftxt"); copyLine(fin); copyLine(cin);
16 Define a function called sendLine that takes one argument that is an output stream When called, sendLine reads one line of input from the keyboard and outputs the line to the output stream given as its argument You should be able to call your function using either cout or an output-file stream as the argument to your function sendLine (If the