s MANIPULATORS in Software

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s MANIPULATORS
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A manipulator is a function that is called in a nontraditional way Manipulators are manipulator placed after the insertion operator <<, just as if the manipulator function call were an item to be output Like traditional functions, manipulators may or may not have arguments We have already seen one manipulator, endl This subsection discusses two manipulators called setw and setprecision The manipulator setw and the member function width (which you have already setw seen) do exactly the same thing You call the setw manipulator by writing it after the
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insertion operator, <<, as if it were to be sent to the output stream, and this in turn calls the member function width For example, the following will output the numbers 10, 20, and 30, using the eld widths speci ed:
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cout << "Start" << setw(4) << 10 << setw(4) << 20 << setw(6) << 30;
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The preceding statement will produce the following output:
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Start 10 20 30
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setprecision
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(There are two spaces before the 10, two spaces before the 20, and four spaces before the 30) Like the member function width, a call to setw applies only to the next item output, but it is easier to include multiple calls to setw than it is to make multiple calls to width The manipulator setprecision does the same thing as the member function precision (which you have already seen) However, a call to setprecision is written after the insertion operator, <<, in a manner similar to how you call the setw manipulator For example, the following will output the numbers listed using the number of digits after the decimal point that are indicated by the call to setprecision:
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coutsetf(ios::fixed); coutsetf(ios::showpoint); cout << "$" << setprecision(2) << 103 << endl << "$" << 205 << endl;
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The above statement will produce the following output:
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$1030 $2050
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<iomanip>
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When you set the number of digits after the decimal point using the manipulator setprecision, then just as was the case with the member function precision, the setting stays in effect until you reset it to some other number by another call to either setprecision or precision To use either of the manipulators setw or setprecision, you must include the following directive in your program:
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#include <iomanip> using namespace std;
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or must use one of the other ways of specifying the names and namespace, such as the following:
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#include <iomanip> using std::setw; using std::setprecision;
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s SAVING FLAG SETTINGS
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A function should not have unwanted or unexpected side effects For example, a function to output amounts of money might contain
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coutsetf(ios::fixed); coutsetf(ios::showpoint); coutprecision(2);
After the function invocation ends, these settings will still be in effect If you do not want such side effects, you can save and restore the original settings The function precision has been overloaded so that with no arguments it returns the current precision setting so the setting can later be restored The ags set with setf are easy to save and restore The member function flags is overloaded to provide a way to save and then restore the ag settings The member function coutflags( ) returns a value of type long that codes all the ag settings The ags can be reset by using this long value as an argument to coutflags These techniques work the same for le output streams as they do for cout For example, a function to save and restore these settings could be structured as follows:
void outputStuff(ofstream& outStream) { int precisionSetting = outStreamprecision( ); long flagSettings = outStreamflags( ); outStreamsetf(ios::fixed); outStreamsetf(ios::showpoint); outStreamprecision(2);
Do whatever you want here
outStreamprecision(precisionSetting); outStreamflags(flagSettings); }
Another way to restore settings is
coutsetf(0, ios::floatfield);
An invocation of the member function setf with these arguments will restore the default setf settings Note that these are the default values, not necessarily the settings before the last time they were changed Also note that the default setting values are implementation-dependent Finally, note that this does not reset precision settings or any settings that are not set with setf