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I/O Streams
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SUMMARY
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OF FILE
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I/O STATEMENTS
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In this example the input comes from a file with the name infiletxt, and the output goes to a file with the name outfiletxt
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Place the following include directives in your program file:
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#include <fstream> #include <iostream> #include <cstdlib>
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For file I/O For cout For exit
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Add the following using directives (or something similar):
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using using using using
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std::ifstream; std::ofstream; std::cout; std::endl; //if endl is used
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Choose a stream name for the input stream and declare it to be a variable of type ifstream Choose a stream name for the output file and declare it to be of type ofstream For example:
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ifstream inStream; ofstream outStream;
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Connect each stream to a file using the member function open with the external file name as an argument Remember to use the member function fail to test that the call to open was successful:
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inStreamopen("infiletxt"); if (inStreamfail( )) { cout << "Input file opening failed\n"; exit(1); } outStreamopen("outfiletxt"); if (outStreamfail( )) { cout << "Output file opening failed\n"; exit(1); }
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Use the stream inStream to get input from the file infiletxt just like you use cin to get input from the keyboard For example:
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inStream >> someVariable >> someOtherVariable;
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Streams and File I/O
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Use the stream outStream to send output to the file outfiletxt just like you use cout to send output to the screen For example:
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outStream << "someVariable = " << someVariable << endl;
Close the streams using the function close:
inStreamclose( ); outStreamclose( );
Self-Test Exercises
1 Suppose you are writing a program that uses a stream called fin, which will be connected to an input file, and a stream called fout, which will be connected to an output file How do you declare fin and fout What include directive, if any, do you need to place in your program file 2 Suppose you are continuing to write the program discussed in the previous exercise and you want your program to take its input from the file stuff1txt and send its output to the file stuff2txt What statements do you need to place in your program in order to connect the stream fin to the file stuff1txt and to connect the stream fout to the file stuff2txt Be sure to include checks to make sure that the openings were successful 3 Suppose that you are still writing the same program that we discussed in the previous two exercises and you reach the point at which you no longer need to get input from the file stuff1txt and no longer need to send output to the file stuff2txt How do you close these files 4 Suppose you want to change the program in Display 121 so that it sends its output to the screen instead of the file outfiletxt (The input should still come from the file infiletxt) What changes do you need to make to the program 5 A programmer has read half of the lines in a file What must the programmer do to the file to enable reading the first line a second time
s CHARACTER I/O
9 described character I/O from the keyboard with cin and to the screen with cout All those details apply equally well to le I/O Just use an input stream connected to a le in place of cin or an output stream connected to a le in place of cout In particular, get, getline, putback, peek, and ignore work the same for le input as they do for keyboard input;1 put works the same for le output as it does for screen output
I/O Streams
s CHECKING FOR THE END OF A FILE
A common way of processing an input le is to use a loop that processes data from the le until the end of the le is reached There are two standard ways to test for the end of a le The most straightforward way is to use the eof member function Every input- le stream has a member function called eof that can be used to test for reaching the end of the input le The function eof takes no arguments, so if the input stream is called fin, then a call to the function eof is written
fineof( )