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Compiling your program automatically invokes a preprocessor that reads this include directive and replaces it with the text in the le dtimeh Thus, the compiler sees the contents of dtimeh, and so the le dtimeh does not need to be compiled separately (In fact, the compiler sees the contents of dtimeh twice: once when you compile the implementation le and once when you compile the application le) This copying of the le dtimeh is only a conceptual copying The compiler acts as if the contents of dtimeh were copied into each le that has the include directive However, if you look in those les after they are compiled, you will only nd the include directive; you will not nd the contents of the le dtimeh Once the implementation le and the application le are compiled, you still need to connect these les so that they can work together This is called linking the les and is done by a separate utility called a linker The details of how to call the linker depends on what system you are using Often, the command to run a program automatically invokes the linker, so you need not explicitly call the linker at all After the les are linked, you can run your program This sounds like a complicated process, but many systems have facilities that manage much of this detail for you automatically or semiautomatically On any system, the details quickly become routine On UNIX systems, these details are handled by the make facility In most IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) these various les are combined into something called a project Displays 111, 112, and 113 contain one complete program divided into pieces and placed in three different les You could instead combine the contents of these three les into one le, and then compile and run this one le without all this fuss
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1 2 3 4 //This is the application file timedemocpp, which demonstrates use of DigitalTime #include <iostream> using namespace std; #include "dtimeh"
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int main( ) { DigitalTime clock, oldClock;
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cout << "You may write midnight as either 0:00 or 24:00,\n" << "but I will always write it as 0:00\n" << "Enter the time in 24-hour notation: "; cin >> clock;
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oldClock = clock; clockadvance(15); if (clock == oldClock) cout << "Something is wrong"; cout << "You entered " << oldClock << endl; cout << "15 minutes later the time will be " << clock << endl;
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clockadvance(2, 15); cout << "2 hours and 15 minutes after that\n" << "the time will be " << clock << endl;
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return 0; }
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You may write midnight as either 0:00 or 24:00, but I will always write it as 0:00 Enter the time in 24-hour notation: 11:15 You entered 11:15 15 minutes later the time will be 11:30 2 hours and 15 minutes after that the time will be 13:45
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about include directives and linking separate les Why bother with three separate les There are several advantages to dividing your program into separate les Since you have the de nition and the implementation of the class DigitalTime in les separate from the application le, you can use this class in many different programs without needing to rewrite the de nition of the class in each of the programs Moreover, you
DEFINING
CLASS
SEPARATE FILES: A SUMMARY
You can define a class and place the definition of the class and the implementation of its member functions in separate files You can then compile the class separately from any program that uses the class and you can use this same class in any number of different programs The class is placed in files as follows: 1 Put the definition of the class in a header file called the interface file The name of this header file ends in h The interface file also contains the declarations (prototypes) for any functions and overloaded operators that define basic class operations but that are not listed in the class definition Include comments that explain how all these functions and operators are used 2 The definitions of all the functions and overloaded operators mentioned above (whether they are members or friends or neither) are placed in another file called the implementation file This file must contain an include directive that names the interface file described above This include directive uses quotes around the file name, as in the following example:
#include "dtimeh"
The interface file and the implementation file traditionally have the same name, but end in different suffixes The interface file ends in h The implementation file ends in the same suffix that you use for files that contain a complete C++ program The implementation file is compiled separately before it is used in any program 3 When you want to use the class in a program, you place the main part of the program (and any additional function definitions, constant declarations, and such) in another file called an application file or driver file This file also must contain an include directive naming the interface file, as in the following example:
#include "dtimeh"
The application file is compiled separately from the implementation file You can write any number of these application files to use with one pair of interface and implementation files To run an entire program, you must first link the object code produced by compiling the application file and the object code produced by compiling the implementation file (On some systems the linking may be done automatically or semiautomatically) If you use multiple classes in a program, then you simply have multiple interface files and multiple implementation files, each compiled separately