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Display 109 A Two-Dimensional Dynamic Array (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 #include <iostream> using std::cin; using std::cout; using std::endl;
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typedef int* IntArrayPtr;
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int main( ) { int d1, d2; cout << "Enter the row and column dimensions of the array:\n"; cin >> d1 >> d2;
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IntArrayPtr *m = new IntArrayPtr[d1]; int i, j; for (i = 0; i < d1; i++) m[i] = new int[d2]; //m is now a d1-by-d2 array
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cout << "Enter " << d1 << " rows of " << d2 << " integers each:\n"; for (i = 0; i < d1; i++) for (j = 0; j < d2; j++) cin >> m[i][j];
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cout << "Echoing the two-dimensional array:\n"; for (i = 0; i < d1; i++) { for (j = 0; j < d2; j++) cout << m[i][j] << " "; cout << endl; Note that there must be one call to } delete [] for each call to new that for (i = 0; i < d1; i++) delete[] m[i]; delete[] m;
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created an array (These calls to delete [] are not really needed since the program is ending, but in another context it could be important to include them)
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Enter the row and column dimensions of the array: 3 4 Enter 3 rows of 4 integers each: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 Echoing the two-dimensional array: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
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The combinations are endless
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A dynamically allocated array can have a base type that is a class A class can have a member variable that is a dynamically allocated array You can combine classes and dynamically allocated arrays in just about any combination There are a few more things to worry about when using classes and dynamically allocated arrays, but the basic techniques are the ones that you have already used Many of the techniques presented in this section apply to all dynamically allocated structures, such as those we will discuss in 17, and not just to classes involving dynamically allocated arrays
s THE -> OPERATOR
C++ has an operator that can be used with a pointer to simplify the notation for specifying the members of a struct or a class The arrow operator, ->, combines the actions of a dereferencing operator, *, and a dot operator to specify a member of a dynamic struct or class object that is pointed to by a given pointer For example, suppose you have the following de nition:
struct Record { int number; char grade; };
arrow operator
Pointers and Dynamic Arrays
The following creates a dynamically allocated variable of type Record and sets the member variables of the dynamic struct variable to 2001 and A :
Record *p; p = new Record; p->number = 2001; p->grade = A ;
The notations
p->grade
(*p)grade
have the same meaning However, the rst is more convenient and is almost always the notation used
s THE this POINTER
When de ning member functions for a class, you sometimes want to refer to the calling object The this pointer is a prede ned pointer that points to the calling object For example, consider a class like the following:
class Sample { public: void showStuff( ) const; private: int stuff; };
The following two ways of de ning the member function showStuff are equivalent:
void Sample::showStuff( ) const { cout << stuff; } //Not good style, but this illustrates the this pointer: void Sample::showStuff( ) { cout << this->stuff; }
Classes, Pointers, and Dynamic Arrays
Notice that this is not the name of the calling object, but is the name of a pointer that points to the calling object The this pointer cannot have its value changed; it always points to the calling object As our earlier comment indicated, you normally have no need for the pointer this However, in a few situations it is handy One place where the this pointer is commonly used is in overloading the assignment operator, =, which we discuss next Since the this pointer points to the calling object, you cannot use this in the de nition of any static member functions A static member function normally has no calling object to which the pointer this can point