The Standard Class string in Software

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The Standard Class string
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I try to catch every sentence, every word you and I say, and quickly lock all these sentences and words away in my literary storehouse because they might come in handy
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Section 91 introduced C-strings These C-strings are simply arrays of characters terminated with the null character, \0 To manipulate these C-strings you need to worry about all the details of handling arrays For example, when you want to add characters to a C-string and there is not enough room in the array, you must create another array
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Strings
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to hold this longer string of characters In short, C-strings require that you the programmer keep track of all the low-level details of how the C-strings are stored in memory This is a lot of extra work and a source of programmer errors The ANSI/ISO standard for C++ speci ed that C++ must now also have a class string that allows the programmer to treat strings as a basic data type without needing to worry about implementation details This section introduces you to this string type
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s INTRODUCTION TO THE STANDARD CLASS string
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The class string is de ned in the library whose name is also <string>, and the de nitions are placed in the std namespace To use the class string, therefore, your code must contain the following (or something more or less equivalent):
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#include <string> using namespace std;
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+ does
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concatenation
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The class string allows you to treat string values and string expressions very much like values of a simple type You can use the = operator to assign a value to a string variable, and you can use the + sign to concatenate two strings For example, suppose s1, s2, and s3 are objects of type string and both s1 and s2 have string values Then s3 can be set equal to the concatenation of the string value in s1 followed by the string value in s2 as follows:
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s3 = s1 + s2;
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There is no danger of s3 being too small for its new string value If the sum of the lengths of s1 and s2 exceeds the capacity of s3, then more space is automatically allocated for s3 As we noted earlier in this chapter, quoted strings are really C-strings and so they are not literally of type string However, C++ provides automatic type casting of quoted strings to values of type string Thus, you can use quoted strings as if they were literal values of type string, and we (and most others) will often refer to quoted strings as if they were values of type string For example,
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s3 = "Hello Mom!";
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constructors
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sets the value of the string variable s3 to a string object with the same characters as in the C-string "Hello Mom!" The class string has a default constructor that initializes a string object to the empty string The class string also has a second constructor that takes one argument that is a standard C-string and so can be a quoted string This second constructor initializes the string object to a value that represents the same string as its C-string argument For example,
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string phrase; string noun("ants");
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The Standard Class string
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The rst line declares the string variable phrase and initializes it to the empty string The second line declares noun to be of type string and initializes it to a string value equivalent to the C-string "ants" Most programmers when talking loosely would say that noun is initialized to "ants", but there really is a type conversion here The quoted string "ants" is a C-string, not a value of type string The variable noun receives a string value that has the same characters as "ants" in the same order as "ants , but the string value is not terminated with the null character \0 In theory, at least, you do not need to know or care whether the string value of noun is even stored in an array, as opposed to some other data structure There is an alternate notation for declaring a string variable and invoking the default constructor The following two lines are exactly equivalent:
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string noun("ants"); string noun = "ants";
These basic details about the class string are illustrated in Display 94 Note that, as illustrated there, you can output string values using the operator << Consider the following line from Display 94:
phrase = "I love " + adjective + " " + noun + "!";