s THE MEMBER FUNCTIONS get AND put in Software

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s THE MEMBER FUNCTIONS get AND put
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The function get allows your program to read in one character of input and store it in a variable of type char Every input stream, whether it is an input- le stream or the stream cin, has get as a member function We will describe get here as a member function of the object cin (When we discuss le I/O in 12 we will see that it behaves exactly the same for input- le streams as it does for cin) Before now, we have used cin with the extraction operator, >>, in order to read a character of input (or any other input, for that matter) When you use the extraction operator >>, some things are done for you automatically, such as skipping over whitespace But sometimes you do not want to skip over whitespace The member function cinget reads the next input character no matter whether the character is whitespace or not The member function get takes one argument, which should be a variable of type char That argument receives the input character that is read from the input stream For example, the following will read in the next input character from the keyboard and store it in the variable nextSymbol:
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char nextSymbol; cinget(nextSymbol);
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reading blanks and \n
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It is important to note that your program can read any character in this way If the next input character is a blank, this code will read the blank character If the next character is the newline character \n (that is, if the program has just reached the end of an input line), then the above call to cinget will set the value of nextSymbol equal to \n For example, suppose your program contains the following code:
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char c1, c2, c3; cinget(c1); cinget(c2); cinget(c3);
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and suppose you type in the following two lines of input to be read by this code:
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The value of c1 is set to A , the value of c2 is set to B , and the value of c3 is set to \n The variable c3 is not set equal to C One thing you can do with the member function get is to have your program detect the end of a line The following loop will read a line of input and stop after passing the newline character \n Any subsequent input will be read from the beginning of the next line For this rst example, we have simply echoed the input, but the same technique would allow you to do whatever you want with the input
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cout << "Enter a line of input and I will echo it:\n"; char symbol; do { cinget(symbol); cout << symbol; } while (symbol != \n ); cout << "That s all for this demonstration\n";
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detecting the end of an input line
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This loop will read any line of input and echo it exactly, including blanks The following is a sample dialogue produced by this code:
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Enter a line of input and I will echo it: Do Be Do 1 2 34 Do Be Do 1 2 34 That s all for this demonstration
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Notice that the newline character \n is both read and output Since \n is output, the string that begins with the word "That s" is on a new line
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'\n'
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\n and "\n" sometimes seem like the same thing In a cout statement, they produce the same effect, but they cannot be used interchangeably in all situations \n is a value of type char and can be stored in a variable of type char On the other hand, "\n" is a string that happens to be made up of exactly one character Thus, "\n" is not of type char and cannot be stored in a variable of type char
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The member function put is analogous to the member function get except that it is used for output rather than input The function put allows your program to output one character The member function coutput takes one argument, which should be an expression of type char, such as a constant or a variable of type char The value of the argument is output to the screen when the function is called For example, the following will output the letter a to the screen:
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coutput( a );