FUNCTION in Software

Creation Data Matrix in Software FUNCTION
FUNCTION
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strcpy(Target_String_Var, Src_String)
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DESCRIPTION Copies the C-string value Src_String into the C-string variable Target_String_Var The same as the two-argument strcpy except that at most Limit characters are copied Concatenates the C-string value Src_String onto the end of the C-string in the C-string variable Target_String_Var The same as the two argument strcat except that at most Limit characters are appended
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CAUTIONS Does not check to make sure Target_String_Var is large enough to hold the value Src_String If Limit is chosen carefully, this is safer than the two-argument version of strcpy Not implemented in all versions of C++ Does not check to see that Target_String_Var is large enough to hold the result of the concatenation If Limit is chosen carefully, this is safer than the two-argument version of strcat Not implemented in all versions of C++
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strncpy(Target_String_Var, Src_String, Limit)
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strcat(Target_String_Var, Src_String)
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strncat(Target_String_Var, Src_String, Limit)
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Strings
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Display 91 Some Predefined C-String Functions in <cstring> (part 2 of 2)
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FUNCTION
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strlen(Src_String)
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DESCRIPTION Returns an integer equal to the length of Src_String (The null character, \0 , is not counted in the length) Returns 0 if String_1 and String_2 are the same Returns a value < 0 if String_1 is less than String_2 Returns a value > 0 if String_1 is greater than String_2 (that is, returns a nonzero value if String_1 and String_2 are different) The order is lexicographic The same as the two-argument strcat except that at most Limit characters are compared
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CAUTIONS
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strcmp(String_1,String_2)
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If String_1 equals String_2, this function returns 0, which converts to false Note that this is the reverse of what you might expect it to return when the strings are equal
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strncmp(String_1, String_2, Limit)
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If Limit is chosen carefully, this is safer than the two-argument version of strcmp Not implemented in all versions of C++
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C-STRING ARGUMENTS
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PARAMETERS
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A C-string variable is an array, so a C-string parameter to a function is simply an array parameter As with any array parameter, whenever a function changes the value of a C-string parameter, it is safest to include an additional int parameter giving the declared size of the C-string variable On the other hand, if a function only uses the value in a C-string argument but does not change that value, then there is no need to include another parameter to give either the declared size of the C-string variable or the amount of the C-string variable array that is filled The null character, \0 , can be used to detect the end of the C-string value that is stored in the C-string variable
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Self-Test Exercises
1 Which of the following declarations are equivalent
char char char char char stringVar[10] = "Hello"; stringVar[10] = { H , e , l , l , o , \0 }; stringVar[10] = { H , e , l , l , o }; stringVar[6] = "Hello"; stringVar[] = "Hello";
An Array Type for Strings
2 What C-string will be stored in singingString after the following code is run
char singingString[20] = "DoBeDo"; strcat(singingString, " to you");
Assume that the code is embedded in a complete and correct program and that an include directive for <cstring> is in the program le 3 What (if anything) is wrong with the following code
char stringVar[] = "Hello"; strcat(stringVar, " and Good-bye"); cout << stringVar;
Assume that the code is embedded in a complete program and that an include directive for <cstring> is in the program le 4 Suppose the function strlen (which returns the length of its string argument) was not already defined for you Give a function definition for strlen Note that strlen has only one argument, which is a C-string Do not add additional arguments; they are not needed 5 What is the length (maximum) of a string that can be placed in the string variable declared by the following declaration Explain
char s[6];