Strings in Software

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Strings
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C-string variables
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A C-string variable is just an array of characters Thus, the following array declaration provides us with a C-string variable capable of storing a C-string value with nine or fewer characters:
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char s[10];
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The 10 is for the 9 letters in the string plus the null character \0 to mark the end of the string A C-string variable is a partially lled array of characters Like any other partially lled array, a C-string variable uses positions starting at indexed variable 0 through as many as are needed However, a C-string variable does not use an int variable to keep track of how much of the array is currently being used Instead, a string variable places the special symbol \0 in the array immediately after the last character of the C-string Thus, if s contains the string "Hi Mom!", the array elements are lled as shown below:
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s[0] H s[1] i s[2] s[3] M s[4] o s[5] m s[6] ! s[7] \0 s[8] s[9]
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C-string variables vs arrays of characters
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initializing C-string variables
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The character \0 is used as a sentinel value to mark the end of the C-string If you read the characters in the C-string starting at indexed variable s[0], proceed to s[1], then to s[2], and so forth, you know that when you encounter the symbol \0 you have reached the end of the C-string Since the symbol \0 always occupies one element of the array, the length of the longest string that the array can hold is one less than the size of the array The thing that distinguishes a C-string variable from an ordinary array of characters is that a C-string variable must contain the null character \0 at the end of the C-string value This is a distinction regarding how the array is used rather than a distinction regarding what the array is A C-string variable is an array of characters, but it is used in a different way You can initialize a C-string variable when you declare it, as illustrated by the following example:
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char myMessage[20] = "Hi there";
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Notice that the C-string assigned to the C-string variable need not ll the entire array When you initialize a C-string variable, you can omit the array size and C++ will automatically make the size of the C-string variable one more than the length of the quoted string (The one extra indexed variable is for \0 ) For example:
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char shortString[] = "abc";
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is equivalent to
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char shortString[4] = "abc";
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An Array Type for Strings
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C-STRING VARIABLE DECLARATION
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A C-string variable is the same thing as an array of characters, but it is used differently A C-string variable is declared to be an array of characters in the usual way
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SYNTAX
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char Array_Name[Maximum_C-string_Size + 1];
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EXAMPLE
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char myCstring[11];
The + 1 allows for the null character \0 , which terminates any C-string stored in the array For example, the C-string variable myCstring in the above example can hold a C-string that is ten or fewer characters long
Be sure you do not confuse the following initializations:
char shortString[] = "abc";
char shortString[] = { a , b , c };
They are not equivalent The rst of these two possible initializations places the null character \0 in the array after the characters a , b , and c The second one does not put a \0 anyplace in the array
INITIALIZING
C-STRING VARIABLE
A C-string variable can be initialized when it is declared, as illustrated by the following example:
char yourString[11] = "Do Be Do";
Initializing in this way automatically places the null character, \0 , in the array at the end of the C-string specified If you omit the number inside the square brackets, [], then the C-string variable will be given a size one character longer than the length of the C-string For example, the following declares myString to have nine indexed variables (eight for the characters of the C-string "Do Be Do" and one for the null character \0 ):
char myString[] = "Do Be Do";