Strings in Software

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Strings
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INTRODUCTION
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This chapter discusses two types whose values represent strings of characters, such as "Hello" One type is just an array with base type char that stores strings of characters in the array and marks the end of the string with the null character, \0 This is the older way of representing strings, which C++ inherited from the C programming language These sorts of strings are called C-strings Although C-strings are an older way of representing strings, it is dif cult to do any sort of string processing in C++ without at least passing contact with C-strings For example, quoted strings, such as "Hello", are implemented as C-strings in C++ The ANSI/ISO C++ standard includes a more modern string handling facility in the form of the class string The class string is the second string type that we will discuss in this chapter The full class string uses templates and so is similar to the template classes in the Standard Template Library (STL) Templates are covered in 16 and the STL is covered in 19 This chapter covers basic uses of the class string that do not require a knowledge of templates This material does not require extensive knowledge of arrays, but you should be familiar with basic array notation, such as a[i] Section 51 of 5 covers more than enough material about arrays to allow you to read the material of this chapter This material also does not require extensive knowledge of classes Section 91 on C-strings and Section 92 on character manipulation can be covered before s 6, 7, and 8, which cover classes However, before reading Section 93 on the standard class string, you should read 6 and the following parts of 7: Section 71 and the subsection of Section 72 entitled The const Parameter Modi er along with its accompanying pitfall section
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An Array Type for Strings
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An Array Type for Strings
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This section describes one way to represent strings of characters, which C++ inherited from the C language Section 93 describes a string class that is a more modern way to represent strings Although the string type described here may be a bit old fashioned, it is still widely used and is an integral part of the C++ language
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s C-STRING VALUES AND C-STRING VARIABLES
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One way to represent a string is as an array with base type char However, if the string is "Hello", it is handy to represent it as an array of characters with six indexed variables: ve for the ve letters in "Hello" plus one for the character \0 , which serves as an end marker The character \0 is called the null character and is used as an end marker because it is distinct from all the real characters The end marker allows your program to read the array one character at a time and know that it should stop reading when it reads the \0 A string stored in this way (as an array of characters terminated with \0 ) is called a C-string We spell \0 with two symbols when we write it in a program, but just like the newline character \n , the character \0 is really only a single character value Like any other character value, \0 can be stored in one variable of type char or one indexed variable of an array of characters
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null character,
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\0
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C-string
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THE NULL CHARACTER, '\0'
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The null character, \0 , is used to mark the end of a C-string that is stored in an array of characters When an array of characters is used in this way, the array is often called a C-string variable Although the null character \0 is written using two symbols, it is a single character that fits in one variable of type char or one indexed variable of an array of characters
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You have already been using C-strings In C++, a literal string, such as "Hello" is stored as a C-string, although you seldom need to be aware of this detail
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