Operator Overloading, Friends, and References in Software

Maker Data Matrix 2d barcode in Software Operator Overloading, Friends, and References
Operator Overloading, Friends, and References
Generate Data Matrix 2d Barcode In C#
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create ECC200 image in VS .NET applications.
++ and --
ECC200 Generator In VS .NET
Using Barcode creator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create ECC200 image in ASP.NET applications.
You can overload the ++ and -- operators in ways similar to how we overloaded the negation operator in Display 81 If you overload the ++ and -- operators following the example of the minus sign - in Display 81, then the overloading de nition will apply to the operator when it is used in pre x position, as in ++x and --x Later in this chapter we will discuss overloading ++ and -- more fully and will then explain how to overload these operators for use in the post x position
Encode Data Matrix 2d Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET framework Control to generate, create Data Matrix 2d barcode image in .NET applications.
s OVERLOADING AS MEMBER FUNCTIONS
Data Matrix ECC200 Creation In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in .NET framework applications.
In Display 81 we overloaded operators as standalone functions de ned outside the class It is also possible to overload an operator as a member operator (member function) This is illustrated in Display 82 Note that when a binary operator is overloaded as a member operator, there is only one parameter, not two The calling object serves as the rst parameter For example, consider the following code:
Reading Code 3 Of 9 In .NET
Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
Money cost(1, 50), tax(0, 15), total; total = cost + tax;
Code 128A Generation In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for .NET Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in VS .NET applications.
When + is overloaded as a member operator, then in the expression cost + tax the variable cost is the calling object and tax is the single argument to + The de nition of the member operator + is given in Display 82 Notice the following line from that de nition:
Printing EAN-13 In VS .NET
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create European Article Number 13 image in .NET framework applications.
int allCents1 = cents + dollars*100;
Create Data Matrix ECC200 In Java
Using Barcode maker for Java Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in Java applications.
The expressions cents and dollars are member variables of the calling object, which in this case is the rst operand If this de nition is applied to
Code 128 Code Set A Recognizer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
cost + tax
Generate Bar Code In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode encoder for .NET framework Control to generate, create bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
then cents means costcents and dollars means costdollars Note that since the rst operand is the calling object, you should, in most cases, add the const modi er to the end of the operator declaration and to the end of the operator de nition Whenever the operator invocation does not change the calling object (which is the rst operand), good style dictates that you add the const to the end of the operator declaration and to the end of the operator de nition, as illustrated in Display 82 Overloading an operator as a member variable can seem strange at rst, but it is easy to get used to the new details Many experts advocate always overloading operators as member operators rather than as nonmembers (as in Display 81): It is more in the spirt of object-oriented programming and is a bit more ef cient, since the de nition can directly reference member variables and need not use accessor and mutator functions However, as we will discover later in this chapter, overloading an operator as a member also has a signi cant disadvantage
Generating ANSI/AIM Code 128 In Java
Using Barcode printer for Java Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in Java applications.
Basic Operator Overloading
Data Matrix ECC200 Creation In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create Data Matrix ECC200 image in .NET applications.
Display 82 Overloading Operators as Members (part 1 of 2)
Decoding Barcode In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 #include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> #include <cmath> using namespace std;
Creating Code39 In Java
Using Barcode encoder for Java Control to generate, create Code 39 Full ASCII image in Java applications.
This is Display 81 redone with the overloaded operators as member functions
ANSI/AIM Code 39 Creator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 39 image in ASP.NET applications.
//Class for amounts of money in US currency class Money { public: Money( ); Money(double amount); Money(int dollars, int cents); Money(int dollars); double getAmount( ) const; int getDollars( ) const; int getCents( ) const; void input( ); //Reads the dollar sign as well as the amount number void output( ) const; const Money operator +(const Money& amount2) const; const Money operator -(const Money& amount2) const; The calling object is bool operator ==(const Money& amount2) const; the first operand const Money operator -( ) const; private: int dollars; //A negative amount is represented as negative dollars and int cents; //negative cents Negative $450 is represented as -4 and -50 int dollarsPart(double amount) const; int centsPart(double amount) const; int round(double number) const; }; int main( ) {
UCC - 12 Drawer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create UPC-A image in ASP.NET applications.
<If the main function is the same as in Display 81, then the screen dialogue will be the same as shown in Display 81>
EAN / UCC - 14 Generator In Java
Using Barcode printer for Java Control to generate, create UCC - 12 image in Java applications.
} const Money Money::operator +(const Money& secondOperand) const { int allCents1 = cents + dollars*100; int allCents2 = secondOperandcents + secondOperanddollars*100; int sumAllCents = allCents1 + allCents2; int absAllCents = abs(sumAllCents); //Money can be negative int finalDollars = absAllCents/100; int finalCents = absAllCents%100;
Create Barcode In C#
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET framework applications.
Barcode Generation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications.