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statement controlling expression
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Flow of Control
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switch STATEMENT
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SYNTAX
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switch (Controlling_Expression) { case Constant_1:
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Statement_Sequence_1
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break; case Constant_2:
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You need not place a break statement in each case If you omit a break, that case continues until a break (or the end of the switch statement) is reached
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Statement_Sequence_2
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break; case Constant_n:
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Statement_Sequence_n
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break; default:
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Default_Statement_Sequence
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EXAMPLE
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int vehicleClass; double toll; cout << "Enter vehicle class: "; cin >> vehicleClass; switch (vehicleClass) { case 1: cout << "Passenger car"; toll = 050; break; case 2: cout << "Bus"; toll = 150; break; case 3: cout << "Truck"; toll = 200; break; default: cout << "Unknown vehicle class!"; }
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If you forget this break, then passenger cars will pay $150
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Branching Mechanisms
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The switch statement ends when either a break statement is encountered or the end of the switch statement is reached A break statement consists of the keyword break followed by a semicolon When the computer executes the statements after a case label, it continues until it reaches a break statement When the computer encounters a break statement, the switch statement ends If you omit the break statements, then after executing the code for one case, the computer will go on to execute the code for the next case Note that you can have two case labels for the same section of code, as in the following portion of a switch statement:
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case A : case a : cout << "Excellent " << "You need not take the final\n"; break;
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break
statement
Since the rst case has no break statement (in fact, no statement at all), the effect is the same as having two labels for one case, but C++ syntax requires one keyword case for each label, such as A and a If no case label has a constant that matches the value of the controlling expression, then the statements following the default label are executed You need not have a default section If there is no default section and no match is found for the value of the controlling expression, then nothing happens when the switch statement is executed However, it is safest to always have a default section If you think your case labels list all possible outcomes, then you can put an error message in the default section
default
Pitfall
FORGETTING
A break IN A switch
STATEMENT
If you forget a break in a switch statement, the compiler will not issue an error message You will have written a syntactically correct switch statement, but it will not do what you intended it to do Notice the annotation in the example in the box entitled switch Statement
USE switch STATEMENTS
MENUS
The multiway if-else statement is more versatile than the switch statement, and you can use a multiway if-else statement anywhere you can use a switch statement However, sometimes the switch statement is clearer For example, the switch statement is perfect for implementing menus Each branch of the switch statement can be one menu choice
Flow of Control
s ENUMERATION TYPES
enumeration type
An enumeration type is a type whose values are de ned by a list of constants of type int An enumeration type is very much like a list of declared constants Enumeration types can be handy for de ning a list of identi ers to use as the case labels in a switch statement When de ning an enumeration type, you can use any int values and can de ne any number of constants For example, the following enumeration type de nes a constant for the length of each month:
enum MonthLength MAR_LENGTH = JUN_LENGTH = SEP_LENGTH = DEC_LENGTH = { JAN_LENGTH = 31, APR_LENGTH 30, JUL_LENGTH 30, OCT_LENGTH 31 }; 31, FEB_LENGTH = = 30, MAY_LENGTH = 31, AUG_LENGTH = 31, NOV_LENGTH 28, = 31, = 31, = 30,
As this example shows, two or more named constants in an enumeration type can receive the same int value If you do not specify any numeric values, the identi ers in an enumeration type de nition are assigned consecutive values beginning with 0 For example, the type de nition
enum Direction { NORTH = 0, SOUTH = 1, EAST = 2, WEST = 3 };