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yourAccount This is because when it is translating the function definition for welcome, all that the compiler knows about the member function output is the function declaration for output If the function declaration does not contain a const that tells the compiler that the calling object
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will not be changed, then the compiler assumes that the calling object will be changed Thus, if you use the modifier const with parameters of type BankAccount, then you should also use const with all BankAccount member functions that do not change the values of their calling objects In particular, the function declaration for the member function output should include a const In Display 74 we have rewritten the definition of the class BankAccount given in Display 72, but this time we have used the const modifier where appropriate In Display 74 we have also added the two functions isLarger and welcome, which we discussed earlier and which have constant parameters
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4 Why would it be incorrect to add the modifier const, as shown below, to the declaration for the member function input of the class BankAccount given in Display 72
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class BankAccount { public: void input( ) const;
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5 What are the differences and the similarities between a call-by-value parameter and a constant call-by-reference parameter Declarations that illustrate these follow
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void callByValue(int x); void callByConstReference(const int& x);
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6 Given the definitions
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const int x = 17; class A { public: A( ); A(int n); int f( )const; int g(const A& x); private: int i; };
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Each of the three const keywords is a promise to the compiler that the compiler will enforce What is the promise in each case
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Display 74 The const Parameter Modifier (part 1 of 3)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 #include <iostream> #include <cmath> #include <cstdlib> using namespace std;
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This is class from Display 72 rewritten using the const modifier
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//Data consists of two items: an amount of money for the account balance //and a percentage for the interest rate class BankAccount { public: BankAccount(double balance, double rate); //Initializes balance and rate according to arguments BankAccount(int dollars, int cents, double rate); //Initializes the account balance to $dollarscents For a negative balance both //dollars and cents must be negative Initializes the interest rate to rate percent BankAccount(int dollars, double rate); //Initializes the account balance to $dollars00 and //initializes the interest rate to rate percent BankAccount( ); //Initializes the account balance to $000 and the interest rate to 00% void update( ); //Postcondition: One year of simple interest has been added to the account void input( ); void output( ) const; double getBalance( ) const; int getDollars( ) const; int getCents( ) const; double getRate( ) const;//Returns interest rate as a percentage void setBalance(double balance); void setBalance(int dollars, int cents); //Checks that arguments are both nonnegative or both nonpositive void setRate(double newRate); //If newRate is nonnegative, it becomes the new rate Otherwise, abort program private: //A negative amount is represented as negative dollars and negative cents //For example, negative $450 sets accountDollars to -4 and accountCents to -50 int accountDollars; //of balance int accountCents; //of balance double rate;//as a percent
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Display 74 The const Parameter Modifier (part 2 of 3)
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40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 int dollarsPart(double amount) const; int centsPart(double amount) const; int round(double number) const; double fraction(double percent) const; //Converts a percentage to a fraction For example, fraction(503) returns 0503 }; //Returns true if the balance in account1 is greater than that //in account2 Otherwise returns false bool isLarger(const BankAccount& account1, const BankAccount& account2); void welcome(const BankAccount& yourAccount); int main( ) { BankAccount account1(654321, 45), account2; welcome(account1); cout << "Enter data for account 2:\n"; account2input( ); if (isLarger(account1, account2)) cout << "account1 is larger\n"; else cout << "account2 is at least as large as account1\n"; return 0; } bool isLarger(const BankAccount& account1, const BankAccount& account2) { return(account1getBalance( ) > account2getBalance( )); } void welcome(const BankAccount& yourAccount) { cout << "Welcome to our bank\n" << "The status of your account is:\n"; yourAccountoutput( ); } //Uses iostream and cstdlib: void BankAccount::output( ) const
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