Invocations of constructors from the class DayOfYear in Software

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Invocations of constructors from the class DayOfYear
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Display 73 A Class Member Variable (part 2 of 3)
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42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 void Holiday::output( ) { dateoutput( ); cout << endl; if (parkingEnforcement) cout << "Parking laws will be enforced\n"; else cout << "Parking laws will not be enforced\n"; } DayOfYear::DayOfYear(int monthValue, int dayValue) : month(monthValue), day(dayValue) { testDate( ); } //uses iostream and cstdlib: void DayOfYear::testDate( ) { if ((month < 1) || (month > 12)) { cout << "Illegal month value!\n"; exit(1); } if ((day < 1) || (day > 31)) { cout << "Illegal day value!\n"; exit(1); } } //Uses iostream: void DayOfYear::output( ) { switch (month) { case 1: cout << "January "; break; case 2: cout << "February "; break; case 3: cout << "March "; break;
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The omitted lines are in Display 63, but they are obvious enough that you should not have to look there
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Display 73 A Class Member Variable (part 3 of 3)
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82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 case 11: cout << "November "; break; case 12: cout << "December "; break; default: cout << "Error in DayOfYear::output Contact software vendor"; } cout << day; }
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Testing the class Holiday February 14 Parking laws will be enforced
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The notation date(month, day) is an invocation of the constructor for the class DayOfYear with arguments month and day to initialize the member variables of date Notice that this notation is analogous to how you would declare a variable date of type DayOfYear Also notice that the parameters of the larger class constructor Holiday can be used in the invocation of the constructor for the member variable
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Intelligence is the facility of making arti cial objects, especially tools to make tools
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This section discusses three topics that, although important, did not t easily before here The three topics are const parameters for classes, inline functions, and static class members
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s THE const PARAMETER MODIFIER
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A call-by-reference parameter is more ef cient than a call-by-value parameter A callby-value parameter is a local variable that is initialized to the value of its argument, so when the function is called there are two copies of the argument With a call-by-reference parameter, the parameter is just a placeholder that is replaced by the argument, so there is only one copy of the argument For parameters of simple types, such as int or double, the difference in ef ciency is negligible, but for class parameters the difference in
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constant parameter
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ef ciency can sometimes be important Thus, it can make sense to use a call-by-reference parameter rather than a call-by-value parameter for a class, even if the function does not change the parameter If you are using a call-by-reference parameter and your function does not change the value of the parameter, you can mark the parameter so that the compiler knows that the parameter should not be changed To do so, place the modi er const before the parameter type The parameter is then called a constant parameter or constant callby-reference parameter For example, in Display 72 we de ned a class named BankAccount for simple bank accounts In some program you might want to write a Boolean-valued function to test which of two accounts has the larger balance The definition of the function might be as follows:
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bool isLarger(BankAccount account1, BankAccount account2) //Returns true if the balance in account1 is greater than that //in account2 Otherwise returns false { return(account1getBalance( ) > account2getBalance( )); }
This is perfectly legal The two parameters are call-by-value parameters However, it would be more ef cient and is more common to make the parameters constant call-byreference parameters, as follows:
bool isLarger(const BankAccount& account1, const BankAccount& account2) //Returns true if the balance in account1 is greater than that //in account2 Otherwise, returns false { return(account1getBalance( ) > account2getBalance( )); }
Note that the only difference is that we made the parameter call-by-reference by adding & and we added the const modi ers If there is a function declaration, then the same change must be made to the parameters in the function declaration Constant parameters are a form of automatic error checking If your function de nition contains a mistake that causes an inadvertent change to the constant parameter, the compiler will issue an error message The parameter modi er const can be used with any kind of parameter; however, it is normally used only for call-by-reference parameters for classes (and for certain other parameters whose corresponding arguments are large, such as arrays) Suppose you invoke a member function for an object of a class, such as the class BankAccount in Display 72 For example:
BankAccount myAccount; myAccountinput( ); myAccountoutput( );